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MAPA stands for Most Affected People and Areas, includes communities that suffer the most from the effects of climate change. "MAPA includes all territories in the Global South (Africa, Latin America, Pacific Islands, etc.) as well as marginalized communities (BIPOC, women, LGBTQIA2S+ people, etc.) that might live anywhere in the world." -Fridays for Future [1]

Examples of MAPA

Marginalized communities in the West [2]

  • In countries that benefit from capitalism, colonialism and white supremacy, MAPA often corresponds with low-income marginalized groups who bear the brunt of environmental impacts including unhealthy drinking water, harmful air quality, and close proximity to fossil fuel and toxic waste facilities.
  • These communities are already experiencing the impacts of the climate crisis, and will continue to experience the worst of the effects. See environmental racism for more. 


Latin America in the Global South

  • The impacts of the climate crisis have already become clear for people living in Latin America. Latin American countries generate less greenhouse gas than the U.S., Europe, Asia and the Middle East, but are disproportionately suffering from droughts, hurricanes and seasonal shifts. [3]
  • Millions of people will be forced to migrate as the crisis worsens and Latin America becomes uninhabitable. 
  • "Higher temperatures and heat waves [are] particularly deadly, especially if populations don't have the infrastructure in place to rely on air conditioning and other means to mitigate the impacts.” -Sarah Bermeo [4]  
  • "More than two thirds of the electricity consumed in Latin America comes from renewable energy resources, chiefly hydropower.” “As we're thinking about a post-fossil fuel world, as we think about the politics and economics that come from a transition from relying mainly on fossil fuels to moving to renewable energy resources, the area of the world that can show us the good, the bad and the ugly about what that might look like is Latin America.” -Christine Folch [5]  

The Philippines in the Global South

  • The Philippines contributes less than 0.4% to the climate crisis. [6]
  • The Philippines experiences an average of 20 typhoons and extreme storms per year, exasperated by the climate crisis. For example, climate-aggravated Typhoon Rai hit the Philippines in December 2021. Four hundred people were killed and over half a million people were displaced, in addition to 830,000 damaged homes and millions of dollars’ worth of crops, farmland and infrastructure damage. 
  • The aftermath of these typhoons is devastating. “People wandered the streets with signs saying they were hungry and thirsty." “Many died of dehydration. Flooded cities have become ghost towns; houses have been buried by landslides.”-Arnel Murga [7]
  • Rising sea levels from global heating will submerge parts of the country, leading to thousands of climate refugees. Drought and flooding will hit agricultural production and destroy ecosystems.
  • The risk and intensity of health emergencies, such as dengue and diarrhoea, will also increase. 

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